Tuesday, November 16, 2010

Peter the Great vs. Catherine the Great

Thesis: Both Peter the Great and Catherine the Great enacted extensive political and social reform during their respective reigns, but while Peter was more successful with his social reform, Catherine was more successful with her political reform.

I. Peter's Political Reform
A. Put in place meritocracy
B. Replaced duma with senate, established 10 guberni
C. Made army modern, more European, state army
D. Not very successful- many of his reforms were repealed after he died
II. Catherine's Political Reform
A. Gave back lots of rights to the nobles, appeased them
B. Charter of Nobility- ended meritocracy, made alliance with nobility
C. Partitions of Poland, got ports on Black Sea
III. Peter's Social Reform
A. Westernized Russia, move away from Slavophile tradition
B. St. Petersburg- Russia looking to Europe, not Asia
C. Nobles became incredibly attuned to Western culture, mass of population remained "Old Believers"
D. Successful in that he brought Russia into the European sphere
IV. Catherine's Social Reform
A. Prime example of an enlightened despot
-followed developments of Enlightenment
B. Russia never really produced Enlightenment thought of their own
C. Restrictions on torture, religious toleration
D. In terms of cultural mindset she essentially built on what Peter had already started

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